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MessagePosté le: Jeu 2 Juin - 19:11 (2016)    Sujet du message: Physics Of Radiology Répondre en citant

Physics Of Radiology > urlin.us/2k7by

Isotopes and Radioactivity . An outer shell electron is struck and ejected (compton electron). Tissue Contrast in MRI - T1, T2, Gadolinium, and Inversion Recovery Spatial Localization in MRI - Gradients, Fourier transform, Frequency and Phase Encoding, and K space MRI Pulse Sequences - Spin Echo and Gradient Echo, as well as FSE, SSFP, and EPI Image Formation Parameters and Artifacts - Bandwidth, Reduced K-space acquisition, and scanner artifacts Chemical Shift Phenomena and the Dixon method of fat suppression Diffusion-Weighted Imaging - Diffusion, DWI sequence, ADC maps, and more advanced topics including DTI and IVIM. Other Topics. Unsharpness, Resolution A. Online Radiology Physics Courses .

Electron A small particle that usually orbits around the nucleus of an atom and has a negative charge Atomic Number The total number of protons an element has, which consequently defines what the chemical element is. MRI Physics - Advanced. Neutron A particle located inside the nucleus of an atom that has no charge. The autotransformer operates on what principle Self-induction A regular step-up or step-down transformer operates on what principle Mutual Induction What are the three main causes of transformer inefficiency Resistance, Hysteresis and eddy-currents Transformers require what type of voltage to operate, while the x-ray tubes must be supplied with this type of voltage AC/DC Why is it important that the production of x-rays take place in a vacuum Air can cause electrons to scatter, reducing the efficiency of the beam production What causes an "open filament" Over use of the filament causes vaporization of the tungsten How much more area does a rotating anode provide to interact with the electron beam than a stationary anode 1000 times Tube current is adjusted by controlling what circuit Filament What are the SI units of magnetic field strength Tesla List three types of transformers Closed-Core, Autotransformer and shell-type A step-up transformer results in an increase in what Voltage A step-down transformer results in an increase in what Current Electron target interactions result in the conversion of electron kinetic energy into what two types of energy Thermal(Infared Radiation) and Electromagnetic (X-rays) The production of heat in the anode increases directly with increasing x-ray tube what Voltage and Current Using three-phase power is equivalent to a what percent increase in kVp over single phase equipment 12% Using high-frequency power is equivalent to a what percent increase in kVp over single phase equipment 16% What effect does added filtration have on the x-ray beam Removes low energy rays, and "hardens" the beam (increases quality while decreasing quantity) Only what shell x-rays of tungsten are useful for imaging k-shell The doubling of mAs causes a doubling of what striking the target, and consequently doubles the number of what emitted electrons/x-rays The roentgen is a measure of the number of what produced in air by a quantity of x-rays Ion pairs This is just a measure of the total number of electrons that travel from cathode to anode to produce x-rays CurrentxSeconds(mAs) The four factors affecting quantity are what kVp, mAs, Filtration and Distance X-ray quality is also known as what Penetration Doubling the optical density on a radiograph using kVp alone requires an increase of what percent 15% Two factors that affect x-ray quality are what kVp and filtration Rectification The Conversion of AC power into DC power Leakage Radiation The radiation that escapes from the tube housing Off-Focus Radiation 3. Conclusions . Browser compatibility: This site works best on the newest browsers, including mobile browsers. X-Ray Interaction with Matter - X-ray generation, attenuation, dose, and image contrast. Normal Size Small Size show me how Radiology Physics A cumulative run through physics in Radiology QuestionAnswer What are the three basic parts of the x-ray imaging system Operating Console, X-Ray Tube and High Voltage Generator A line compensator ensures that what remains constantly delivered to the imaging system Voltage What two separate circuits is the autotransformer used to supply power to High voltage and filament circuits The process of heating the x-ray tube filament so that electrons can be boiled off is know as what thermionic Emission Filaments normally operate at currents of how many amps 3 to 6 Examination tables are made of what strong, radiolucent material Carbon Fiber The x-ray tube current is controlled by what circuit Filament If an autotransformer moves from 1500 windings to 800 windings, what type of transformer is it Step-Down What are the three basic parts of the high-voltage generator High Voltage Transformer, Filament Transformer and Rectifiers Rectification is accomplished with the use of what Diodes Does half-wave rectification require half the exposure time as full-wave rectification No Is the x-ray tube a type of diode Yes A three-phase twelve-pulse power has how much voltage ripple 4% A three-phase, six-pulse power has how much voltage ripple 14% A high-frequency generator has how much voltage ripple 1% A single-phase power has how much voltage ripple 100% What are the five types of exposure timers Manual, Mechanical, Synchronous, AEC and Electronic Which exposure timer uses an ionization chamber to terminate exposure AEC Name the parts of the x-ray tube Supporting wires, Focusing Cup, Filament, Window, Rotating Anode, Stater Coils, Target, Roter and Glass Envelope What device is used to check exposure timers for accuracy Solid State Radiation Detector Which exposure timer is based on the frequency of AC supplied to the imaging system Synchronous Using a single-phase power, half-wave rectification results in how many x-ray pulses each second 60 Using single-phase power, full wave rectification results in how many x-ray pulses each second 120 Thermionic emission produces a cloud of electrons around the filament known as what Space Charge The main advantage of a rotating anode over a stationary anode is what Better Heat Distribution Once the filament current is high enough for thermionic emission, a small/large rise in filament current results in a small/large rise in tube current Small, Large When imaging x-table lateral spines, one should use which focal spot Large The anode serves three functions in an x-ray tube, what are they Electrical Conductor, Mechanical Support and Thermal Dissipator X-ray tubes in mammography have targets made of either what two materials Rhodium and Molybdenum The anode of a high-capacity tube rotates at how many RPM's 3400 and 10000 rpm The rotating anode is powered by what Electromagnetic Induction Motor What are the characteristics that make tungsten a good selection for target material High atomic number, Thermal conductivity and High melting point Leakage radiation must be less than how many mR/hr at 1 meter 100 The protective housing may contain oil which serves two functions, what are they Insulator and Thermal Cushion The x-ray tube enclosure may be made of what two materials Glass(Pyrex) or Metal What is the melting point of tungsten 3410oC What element is added to tungsten to increase the efficiency of the filament Thorium The cathode is the negative side of the x-ray tube and contains what two primary parts Focusing Cup and Filament X-rays emitted through the window are called what Useful or Primary Beam The focusing cup sustains what type of charge Negative The x-ray tube is: a vacuum tube, a type of transistor, or a diode A vacuum tube and a diode Target angles may vary from what to what degrees 5 to 20 The heel effect results in less radiation on which side of the x-ray beam Anode Should one use the maximum technique in order to warm a cold anode No What are two causes of tube failure Too much technique on a cold tube(overheats) and arching effect due to vaporized tungsten The line-focus principle results in which focal spot size much less than which focal spot size Effective focal spot/Actual Focal Spot The smaller the anode angle, the heel effect becomes what Greater What are the reasons that off-focus radiation is undesirable Extends the size of the focal spot, increases skin dose modestly and reduces image contrast Most of the causes of x-ray tube failure are related to what Thermal Capacity A magnetic field is created any time what type of particle is in motion A charge particle What is the purpose of an electric generator To convert mechanical energy into electricity What is the purpose of an electric motor To convert electricity into mechanical energy A current carrying coil of wire is known as what Selenoid Placing an iron core into a current carrying coil of wire would turn the device into what Electromagnet An electric current is induced in a circuit if some part of that circuit is in what type of magnetic field Changing What are the four factors of Faraday's law The velocity of the magnetic field to the conductor, the magnetic field strength, the angle of the conductor to the magnetic field and the number of turns in the coil.

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